Monday, May 25, 2020

The Great Emancipator Abraham Lincoln - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 957 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Abraham Lincoln Essay Did you like this example? President Abraham Lincoln was a thought desirable who was born on February 12, 1809, in a normal family in Kentucky. His family moved to Indiana seven years later; during that time, he had to farm work to support his family until he was twenty-two years old, so his education was limited. In1832, Lincoln joined the Legislature in Illinois after his family moved to Macon County in Southern Illinois in 1830. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Great Emancipator Abraham Lincoln" essay for you Create order He taught himself laws, practiced and successfully passed the examination in 1836. Since then he worked as a lawyer and earned trust from the residents of his small town to the whole country. Lincoln won the election to the Congress in 1846 and started his tough journey to become the Great Emancipator of America. The first thing made Lincoln be a great emancipator is his personal hatred of slavery led to his belief that slavery compromised the Republican purpose of the country. He gave many arguments to prove his point. In a speech at Peoria, 1954, This declared in the difference, but as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cant but hate criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.(This Fiery Trial, 29) As this point, he attacked slavery with reason that its existence within the United States could make American democracy became a hypocrite in the eyes of the world. In his fragment on slavery, 1857-1858, he said If A can prove, however conclusively. And if he can make it his interest, he has the right to enslave you (This Fiery Trial, 42). During this period, he opposed argued that slavery was demonstrated based on color and intelligence. In letter to Joshua Speed, 1855, Lincoln expressed his hatred of slavery and later on Lincolnâ€Å"Douglas debates, 1858; he claimed that slavery ran counter to American democratic principles because to some Americans, the Declaration of Independences phrase All men are created equal. applied only to somebody but to Lincoln, it applied to everyone include African-Americans. And much more the speeches and writing of Lincoln in history expressed his hate and struggle with slavery. Beside Lincoln hatred of slavery, his opposition to the Dred Scott decision (1958) is also evidence that makes his name became unforgettable. Many feelings against slavery of Lincoln were presented in seven Lincoln-Douglas debates. Through debates with Douglas, Lincoln expressed his disagreement with the Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court. As Lincoln showed in these debates, politically, Republicans were now locked in conflict with the Dred Scott decision (12-9b, Abraham Lincoln and the Slave Power, A People and A Nation) Lincoln actually adhered to the Declaration of Independence that refers to the equality of all people. Therefore, the Dred Scott decision was against the Declaration and Lincoln did not agree with it. As he said in seventh debate with Douglas And when this new principle this new proposition that no human being ever thought of three years ago, is brought forward, I combat it as having an evil tendency, if not an evil design; I combat it as having a tendency to dehumanize the negro to take away from him the right of ever striving to be a man. I combat it as being one of the thousand things constantly done in these days to prepare the public mind to make property, and nothing but the pro perty of the negro in all the States of this Union (This Fiery Trial, 61) Lincoln believed that black people had the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Although Lincoln and the Republicans denied any intent to interfere with slavery in the states where it existed, they stood firm against the extension of slavery into the territories. (13-1 Election of 1860 and Secession Crisis, A People and A Nation) shows that in the debate with Douglas, Lincoln did not try to do anything related to slavery but he believed that the Union could not function as half-slave and half-free. The U.S. would have to be a slave nation or a free nation; it could not be both. (They Have Encouraged Lecture Notes) Therefore, he would try his best to stop slavery extend to the Western Territories. Douglas won the debate, but Lincoln gained much recognition that eventually helped him won the presidential election two years after. In addition, Lincoln began as against slavery and end with finally issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 which liberated all slaves in states that are in civil war and they had the ability to serve in the Army or Navy of the Union. Before the Emancipation Proclamation, the purpose of the Civil War was fighting for the Union. Lincoln said I would save the Union, If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it h elps to save the Union. (13-5b Confiscation Acts, A People and A Nation). With the Emancipation Proclamation, the purpose of the war changed, the war was not only fighting for the Union but also for the freedom of slaves. However, the Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many states at South but not all area; therefore, the Emancipation Proclamation just released about half of Americans slaves on 1865 and later Lincoln strongly supported the 13th Amendment Thirteenth Amendment, the Law of State freed the rest of slaves which removed slavery in America. As this point, Lincoln supported the abolition of slavery to become the constitutional law which made him be the Great Emancipator of America.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Top-25 Chemistry Features and Articles

What are visitors reading? ThoughtCo. has you covered with this handy list of all of the top chemistry topics readers are perusing. Included in this top-25 listing are brief explanations of what youll find if you click the links. Using the periodic table  - The periodic table of the elements contains a wide variety of information. Most tables list element symbols, atomic number, and atomic mass at a minimum. The periodic table is organized so you can see trends in element properties at a glance.Chemical and physical changes  -  Chemical and physical changes are related to  chemical and physical properties.  Chemical changes take place on the molecular level. A chemical change produces a  new substance, as this article explains.Printable periodic tables  - Sometimes its nice to have a paper version of the periodic table of the elements that you can refer to when working problems or doing experiments in the lab. This is a collection of periodic tables that you can print and use. Additional specialty tables are also available.Chemistry glossary  - Find the definitions to terms in this ever-expanding glossary.  The comprehensive glossary offers definitions for terms which are commonly used in ch emistry and chemical engineering.Printable chemistry worksheets  - Print worksheets to practice chemistry problems.  The collection of chemistry worksheets is available in PDF format.Facts about acids and bases - Learn the essential about acids, bases and pH. The link provides the top 10 facts ranging from definitions to the  common test of whether an unknown is an acid or a base.Baking soda vs. baking powder  - Baking powder contains baking soda, but the two substances are used under different conditions.  Learn about the difference between the two and how to make substitutions while baking.Can you drink too much water?  - In a word, yes.  Learn whether its possible to drink too much water, how much it takes, and what happens.Chemistry problems  - Learn how to work problems by using examples.  This collection contains worked general chemistry and introductory chemistry problems, listed in alphabetical orderCrystal meth  - The chemical n-methyl-1-phenyl-propan-2- amine is called methamphetamine, methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine. The shortened name is simply meth.  Learn about the chemistry of this well-known illegal drug.How to write a lab report  - Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade.  Here are step-by-step instructions on how to prepare a lab report for chemistry.List of elements  - This is a list of all the known chemical elements.  The names and  element symbols  are provided in this comprehensive list.How to calculate concentration  - Calculating the  concentration  of a chemical  solution is a basic skill all students of chemistry must develop early in their studies.  Learn how to determine the concentration of a chemical solution.Heterogeneous vs. homogeneous  - Heterogeneous  and  homogeneous  refer to mixtures of materials in chemistry.  Find out the difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures and get examples.How to balance equations  - A chemical equation describes what happens in a chemical  reaction.  Learn how to set up a balanced equation.Acid-base indicators  - An  acid-base indicator  is a weak acid or a weak base.  Information in this article includes common indicators, with a table showing pH ranges, quantities and colors.How to calculate theoretical yield  - Before performing chemical reactions, it is helpful to know how much product will be produced with given quantities of reactants.  Learn how to calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction.What is borax?  - Borax is a natural mineral with a chemical formula Na2B4O7  Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ 10H2O.  Find out what borax is and how it cleans and kills bugs. Learn whether its safe to use.Independent vs. dependent variables  - The two main variables in an experiment are the independent and dependent variable. Learn to understand the difference between independent and dependent variables in a scientific experiment .Firework colors  - Creating firework colors is a complex endeavor, requiring considerable art and application of physical science.  Learn how the colors are formed with a table of common colorants.Periodic table quiz  - Use information about the elements found using a periodic table to answer the questions to this multiple-choice quiz.Natural mosquito repellents  -  You can avoid being bitten by making sure you arent attracting mosquitoes by using a repellent and avoiding actions that diminish the effectiveness of the repellent.  Find natural alternatives to help repel mosquitoes and other insects.Chemistry quizzes  - Look here for all of the quizzes and self-tests and for links to quizzes at other sites.  This collection of chemistry test questions is grouped according to subject.  Home experiments  - Whether you are homeschooling or simply looking for chemistry activities that you can do with everyday materials, this link will help. The link includes everythin g from holiday-themed experiments to steps for building a volcano.Science fair experiments  - Get instructions for setting up your own project.  This list of science fair project ideas is grouped according to topic and educational level. Learn how to make a poster and give a presentation judges will love.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Big Lie Human Restoration Of Nature Essay - 1987 Words

Ethical restoration has been a controversial topic in environmental ethics over the last couple of decades. Its premise is simple, rebuild or relocate ecosystems that have been destroyed by human development. Many believe it is paramount to build a connection between humans and nature, but there are others who argue its just another form of anthropocentric behavior. Eric Katz rejects ethical restoration in his piece, â€Å"The Big Lie: Human Restoration of Nature†. He argues ethical restoration is just another artifact created by humans. When humans create an ecosystem, they really mean to control it and therefore dominate the environment. I argue against this point. Humans are actually just modifying their surroundings like every other natural entity, and while it appears to be domination, it actually is not. My paper will be split between two views, first I will give the view of Katz in his paper, then I will give my critique, then a possible counter argument of his, and fin ally my counter argument. Ethical restoration can not be considered morally wrong because it is a natural phenomena for humans to affect their nature and it is helpful to the environment. In his article â€Å"The Big Lie: Human Restoration of Nature†, Katz argues ethical restoration is another example of anthropocentricism and is a wrong stance to take on environmental ethics. Katz makes two important claims; he declares that humans dominate nature, and he concludes that humans’ actions are artificial, so theirShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage Should Not Be Denied Service1457 Words   |  6 Pagestown pizzeria was asked what their position was on the Religious Restoration Freedom act, and stated that they were a Christian establishment and could not cater to gay marriages. However they would serve gay people and couples in their store. The gay community and supporters immediately bashed at the pizzeria, saying they discriminated the gays, causing them to close down, possibly having to leave town. Religious freedom has been a big part of the US. It is there to provide a religious sanctity forRead MoreEssay about The Everglades: Floridas Unique Landscape of Change1987 Words   |  8 PagesThe Everglades is a diverse ecosystem located in southern Florida, yet urbanization has created a considerable amount of impact that has altered the physical landscape of the region, resulting in a symbiotic environment between humans and nature. Based on geographical research, the original Everglades spanned an area of approximately 12,000km2, and now because of urbanization and agricultural growth in this sub-region the area of the Everglades has been condensed to half of its original size (WillardRead MoreNative Son : Who Made Bigger Thomas?1644 Words   |  7 Pageshim. Pride, in that he knows who he is as a man in regards to his race, culture, and faith. â€Å"He acted like an earlier missing link in the human species. He seemed out of place in a white man’s civilization†, â€Å"despite his dead-black complexion, may have a minor portion of white blood in his veins, a mixture which generally makes for a criminal and intractable nature†, and â€Å"†¦the North encourages Negroes get more education than they are organically capable of absorbing† (Native Son 280,281). All of theseRead MoreThe Water Quality And Health Risk The Ohio State Park Of Buckeye Lake1890 Words   |  8 Pagesand informing the community about the water pollution issue.We as a community can only do this together, to bring the glory days back to the future of what once was a beautiful lake. The toxic algal blooms in Buckeye Lake are not just harmful to humans, but detrimental to wildlife, killing massive amounts of fish. 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Emma Marris learns to appreciate ‘novel ecosystems’. J oe Mascaro, a PhD student in a T-shirt and floral print shorts, is soaking in the diversity of the Hawaiian jungle. Above, a green canopy blocks out most of the sky. Aerial roots wend their way down past tropical trunks, tree ferns and moss-covered prop roots toRead More Cruelty and Insanity in Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys Essay1847 Words   |  8 PagesCruelty and Insanity in Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea provides unique insight into the gradual deterioration of the human mind and spirit. On examining Antoinette and her mother Annette, the reader gains a new perspective of insanity. One realizes that these two women are mentally perturbed as a result of numerous external factors that are beyond their control. The cruelty of life and people drive Annette and her daughter to lunacy. Neither mother nor daughter have aRead MoreThe Effects Of Plastic Pollution On The World s Oceans Essay2272 Words   |  10 PagesSince it’s commercial inception in the late 1930’s, plastic has revolutionized, modernized, and undoubtedly eased the human experience. Unfortunately, this leap in consumer and industrial technology also came with an unforeseen and devastating side effect. Plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is serious and disgustingly under-looked problem. Due to the influx of hundreds of thousands of tons of plastic, the marine landscape is changing rapidly. This issue isn’t just exclusive to oceans eitherRead MoreAccounting Fraud4137 Words   |  17 Pagesmore conducive to ethical behavior. I will say up front that as I start this paper I do not believe anything has improved in America or in the world ethically speaking. I say this with confidence but not with pride. After all we are all human and we all have a sin nature. I do not care if a person tells me they do not believe in God or if they tell me they do believe in God. Research has proven conclusively that all of us cheat. We essentially weigh everything based upon a simple cost-benefit analysisRead MoreWhat Happened - Description Of The Abuse3386 Words   |  14 Pagesstill be termed as sexual abuse as the perpetrator did exploit my cousin’s inability to give informed consent (Southwell, 2003; Health Community Services, 1993) and coerced her into performing acts which made her feel uncomfortable. Given the nature of the sexual abuse and the ages of the perpetrator and victim, who in this case was below the statutory age of consent (Southwell, 2003; Health Community Services, 1993) at the time of the abuse, this can also be classified as paedophilia where

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Therapeutic Addiction free essay sample

Time has a way with irony, and as I‘ve discovered, I‘m usually its victim. If someone had told me six years ago of the oddity I would become, I would have laughed. In sixth grade I developed a habit when my parents were on the outs that soon, after that first tantalizing sample, became an obsession. It was my companion and welcoming embrace when I felt the pressure of my parents‘ quickly dissolving marriage that would crush my whole world into a fine powder. It was therapy, my way of coping. So as I lay each night with a pad of paper and pen next to my bed or a thick novel, I slept all the more soundly. There are those who call me eccentric. After all, it isn‘t common to meet someone who has a habit of reading 500 pages of literature each week, composes a 100-page story, and manages to earn superior grades as though it were as natural as breathing. We will write a custom essay sample on Therapeutic Addiction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Now, don‘t get me wrong, I‘m accustomed to being an oddity and this title no longer holds a negative connotation. I see it as my own stamp of originality. Looking back on what I‘ve gone through, I can easily say that nothing I‘ve done has been as therapeutic as my literary endeavors. As a writer and editor for Writer‘s Workshop at my school, I‘ve been involved in publishing five annual literary magazines (and been published in each one). There is nothing as liberating as openly expressing emotions through the written word. Still, shadows of my past loom, my hopes and dreams easily become small, wavering lights in the distance, and my ideal of expressing those dreams through poetry, a mockery. Yet all it took to alleviate these doubts was a stranger who approached me, and said these memorable words: â€Å"Hey, I just wanted to let you know that I was going through rough times and your poetry helped me sort things out.† Nothing has ever moved me as much as those simple, honest words. They made me smile and realize that by dealing with my own tempestuous emotions, I was allowing others the opportunity to deal with theirs. Now I understand that by writing, I am not just making a promise to express myself but creating a medium through which we relate to one another. This is the ultimate beauty in self-expression if we can make it our habit, our obsession, we‘ll finally be able to rise above the chaos of the world and see ourselves as who we are and who we want to be. Only then can we truly appreciate the emotions which are unique and vital to our existence, to our very humanity.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Prima facie Duties and Rosss Theory of Right Conduct free essay sample

â€Å"There are other beings in this world whose condition we can make better in respect of virtue, or of intelligence or of pleasure† (Ross). W. D. Ross was a philosopher who developed the Theory of Right Conduct. The seven prima facie duties are central in Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct. The purpose of these duties is to determine what people ought to do in questionable moral situations. â€Å"A prima facie duty is a duty that is binding (obligatory) other things equal, that is, unless it is overridden or trumped by another duty or duties† (Garrett). The purpose of this paper is to explain the prima facie duties and Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct. To further demonstrate the theory it will be applied to a morally controversial case. In order to understand the concept of prima facie duties one must understand each of the seven duties. The first duty is Fidelity, this is the obligation to keep one’s promises and not participate in dishonesty. We will write a custom essay sample on Prima facie Duties and Rosss Theory of Right Conduct or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The second is Reparation, which is the duty to make up for any injuries one has caused others. The next duty is Gratitude, this states that one must show gratitude towards others for their help and if possible return the favor. The fourth duty is Harm Prevention that is the duty to prevent harm to others resulting from causes other than oneself. Next is Beneficence this is the duty to do good to others in order to promote their overall wellbeing. The sixth prima facie duty is Self-Improvement that is literally the duty to act in a way that improves one’s self and promotes one’s own wellbeing. Lastly, Justice is the duty that requires one to act in a way that promotes justice in a just manor. While all of these duties appear to be self explanatory and straightforward it can be difficult to determine when one ought to or ought not to perform an action. Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct helps to clarify when two prima facie duties conflict. Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct is a theory that demonstrates the burden to perform or not perform an action based upon the seven prima facie duties. His theory is broken down into actions that are obligatory, wrong or optional. The theory states that it is obligatory to perform an action (A) to uphold one prima facie duty over another, if (and because) action (A) satisfies the most stringent of the conflicting prima facie duty. To better illustrate this take the case of Mike. Mike promises his friend Sally he will give her a ride to work and is therefore obligated to uphold the prima facie duty of fidelity. However, when Mike is driving to pick her up he sees a car crash on the side of the road. If he does not stop to help the victim of the car crash the victim will die. Now Mike has two conflicting prima facie duties, he has the duty of fidelity toward Sally and the duty of beneficence to the stranger. Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct would favor that he uphold the duty of beneficence because it is a more stringent duty. The second part of Ross’s theory states that it is wrong to perform action (A) if and because it would mean not upholding the more stringent of the conflicting prima facie duties. In the case of the car crash this would mean that it would be wrong for Mike to leave the accident to uphold his duty of fidelity because it is not the more stringent of the two prima facie duties. Lastly, an action is optional if and because one of the two following scenarios are present: If one has no prima facie duties in the situation, or if there are conflicting prima facie duties and one or more favors each action. The main problem with Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct is how does one judge one prima facie duty to be more stringent than another. In the case of conflicting prima facie duties one must rely on moral judgment. This means following one’s own intuition that has been shaped by experiences and obtained knowledge over a period of time. There is no formula or strict principle that can be applied in moral judgment one must rely on their own intuition. In the case of the car accident one can use their own moral judgment to determine that upholding beneficence and saving a life is more important than the duty of fidelity and making sure Sally gets to work on time. In some cases it is not as simple to determine the more stringent prima facie duty. To illustrate the complexity of conflicting prima facie duties we will observe the case of George. George is a recent graduate with a Ph. D. in chemistry who is struggling to find a job. His wife is forced to get a job in order to support their family. As a result of an absent mother and the financial stress on the family the children have been experiencing damaging psychological effects. George is offered a job at a laboratory that researches biological and chemical warfare. He is against accepting the job because he believes that the use of biological and chemical warfare is wrong. However, even if he refuses the job the lab will continue to research biological and chemical warfare. Furthermore, if George does not fill the position it will go to a more experience candidate that will speed up the research process. While George is against the research of biological and chemical warfare, his wife is not morally opposed to the idea of George taking the job. This case has many conflicting prima facie duties in which moral judgment must be applied to determine weather George should accept the job or not. There are several conflicting prima facie duties that apply to this case. The first is the duty of harm-prevention. As previously mentioned this states that one must prevent harm to others from causes other than him/herself. In this case this duty applies to both the prevention of harm to George’s family and the harm as a result of his research on biological and chemical warfare. The next duty is beneficence that is concerned with the promotion of the wellbeing of others that includes his family and the potential victims of his research. Lastly, is the duty of self-improvement, and George’s obligation to improve his own wellbeing. To find a resolution to this case I have evaluated each of the prima facie duties and their conflicts. The duty of harm-prevention is best satisfied if George accepts the job. By not taking the job he is not upholding his duty of harm prevention toward his family because they will continue to suffer. On the other hand by refusing the job he is technically upholding the duty of harm prevention toward the potential victims of his chemical and biological warfare research; however, the position will be filled by a more qualified chemist that would cause more harm than if George were to accept the job. The next prima facie duty is beneficence. If George were to accept the job he would be promoting the wellbeing (health, security, and happiness) of his family; however, much like the duty of harm prevention he would not be promoting the wellbeing of the potential victims of his research. The wellbeing of his family can be promoted if he accepts the job because he will be providing them with financial security that will contribute to their health (psychological and physical), and in turn their overall happiness. Also by accepting the position he can slow the progress of research and lessen the potential effects the research can have on the victims. Lastly, the duty of self-improvement can be satisfied if he accepts the job because he will be promoting his security (financially) and health (psychological and physical) because he will alleviate the stress of unemployment and the effects on himself and his family. After a close examination and factoring the various effects of George’s decision he has a moral obligation to accept the job because it is in the best interest of himself, his family and the potential victims of the research. He will promote the wellbeing of him and his family, as well as lessen the unavoidable negative effects on the victims of the biological and chemical warfare.

Monday, March 9, 2020

4 Tips on Writing a Wedding Speech

4 Tips on Writing a Wedding Speech 4 Tips on Writing a Wedding Speech Who doesn’t love weddings? Fancy clothes, romance, food and drink aplenty – they tick all the â€Å"Good Time† boxes. But wait! Maybe you’re the best man, maid of honor, or father of the bride. If so, you might find yourself distracted by fear of delivering a wedding speech. But you can’t let worries about public speaking ruin the party. And with our top tips, you can be confident of getting your wedding speech just right. We will not be recommending a sing-along, but it is an option.(Photo: Greg Neate/flickr) 1. The Essentials of a Wedding Speech There is a basic structure that most wedding speeches follow: Introduce yourself and how you know the groom and/or bride Offer an anecdote or two about your relationship with them Talk about the bride and groom as a couple Thank anyone who you need to thank (e.g., guests, parents of the couple) Make a toast to the future There is room for variation in here, depending on the tone you want to strike. But this basic structure is a good starting point for any wedding speech. 2. Be Funny (But Not Too Funny) It’s often fun to have a couple of jokes or funny stories in a wedding speech. You can look for jokes online, but people may have heard these before! Instead, try to come up with something personal to the couple. Jokes are always funnier if they are based on something true. Remember, though, that this is not a comedy routine. Your speech should celebrate the couple. And if all you do is crack jokes, it might seem like you’re not taking the wedding seriously. 3. Don’t Go There! Here is a list of things you should not do in your wedding speech: Go on about the happy couple’s ex-partners Swear and/or tell filthy jokes Discuss the couple’s relationship problems Dig out the most embarrassing stories imaginable Make it all about you Talk for hours and hours (10 minutes maximum!) You can bend these rules if you’re sure the couple and guests will be fine with what you say. But remember that Aunt Ethel might not be as happy to hear your foul-mouthed story about what the groom did on holiday in Thailand as you and your buddies! So try to judge the room. 4. Get It Proofread You might not think proofreading is important for a wedding speech, as nobody will read it except you. But it does offer advantages: Making sure it is error free will make it easier to read out loud Editing will keep your speech punchy and focused You can even request feedback on your jokes! So if you want to make a great speech, get in touch to see how we can help.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Bulgaria and the European Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Bulgaria and the European Union - Essay Example Although Bulgarian has implemented significant institutional changes, it still must overcome its past and some important domestic hurdles. This research paper will explore the accession of Bulgaria into the ranks of the European Union through an analysis of the process, as well as the challenges this country faces within the EU framework. This is important, not only for Bulgaria and current EU member states but also for future EU enlargement. Accordingly, accelerated Europeanisation will be discussed with reference to the Bulgarian case in the European Union (Richardson 2001, p. 44; Nugent 2003, 23-33; see Warleigh 2004). The EU is a supranational body composed of constituent member states, found largely on the European peninsula. Democracy, negotiation, and collective decision-making through multilateralism are all inherent attributes of the modern EU. As a multinational organization, the EU represents various national interests within an overarching political framework. The EU is an international organization which operates on the basis of negotiation between member states and relies on collective decision-making to achieve its ends. ... Although there were initially only five members of the precursor to the European Union (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and West Germany), there are presently 27 countries in the EU and they are, in alphabetical order, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and finally, the United Kingdom. Countries currently seeking membership in the EU include parts of the former Federal State of Yugoslavia as well as Turkey. A political and economic powerhouse, this intergovernmental organization is estimated to account for up to 30% of the world's total Gross Domestic Product (see Warleigh 2004). Although it has not always been the case, modern-day Europe is characterized by a unifying democratic political culture. While the concept of democracy originated on its shores, the philosophy of democratic governance was challenged in 20th century Europe by authoritarian political movements, including fascism (expressed by Nazi Germany & Mussolini's Italy), and communism (as exemplified in Eastern Europe during the Cold War). With Allied victory in World War II and the recent collapse of the Soviet Union, democracy - in varying degrees- is now a universal trend amongst European states. In fact liberal democracy, best expressed by the states of Western Europe with entrenched democratic traditions, is quickly becoming the standard for the continent. Democratic norms and rules have subsequently been established